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Raspberry Pi

From this thread on SD cards, the comment from by carlosfm on Mon Aug 27, 2012 9:46 pm suggests that the 16GB Sandisk Extreme Class 10 45MB/s working fine on my Pi might be a good card to use.

Also, highly recommended: Samsung 32GB Class 10 Model Code: MB-SSBGA/US

Partway down the page, it says there's a debian package to download:

$ wget
$ sudo dpkg -i iozone3_397-2_armhf.deb
$ iozone -e -I -a -s 50M -r 4k -r 512k -r 16M -i 0 -i 1 -i 2 | tee iozone_out.txt
I was reading the manual for iozone and it said to make sure, for accurate results, to make the -s switch size be TWICE your ram size. My Pi has 512mb so figured minus the 16mb gpu share I'd make it 1000M (for 1gb test file)

Still, there's more to learn. Something about:

just apt-get install bonnie++ 

Debian OS Installation Essentials


sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install vim
sudo apt-get install screen
sudo apt-get install ca-certificates
sudo apt-get install git-core
sudo wget -O /usr/bin/rpi-update && sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/rpi-update
sudo rpi-update
sudo shutdown -r now

To be able to listen to audio via the headphone jack. See here, and do this:

sudo apt-get install alsa-utils; sudo modprobe snd_bcm2835; sudo amixer cset numid=3 1

Playing m3u playlists:

mpg123 -@

Text-based browsing: Either lynx or links

sudo apt-get install lynx
sudo apt-get install links

Maybe sudo vim /etc/lynx-cur/lynx.cfg and change "#ACCEPT_ALL_COOKIES:FALSE" to "ACCEPT_ALL_COOKIES:TRUE"


Consider installing log2ram to extend the life of your SDCard by writing logs to RAM first.

When there are problems, check for logs in /var/log/syslog or /var/log/messages.

It turns out that log2ram does screw up nginx's ability to start on power-cycle. Maybe need something like the following…
#!/usr/bin/env bash
# The tool we use to save flash affects the startup of nginx
if [ ! -d "/var/log/nginx" ]; then
  sudo mkdir /var/log/nginx
# if service --status-all | grep -Fq '[ - ]  nginx'; then
if ! service nginx status | grep -Fq 'active (running)'; then
  sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start > /dev/null
  # systemctl start nginx

Keyboard Repeat Problem

They claim it's often a power problem.

Forum user MrEngman reported some keyboard repeats and wireless hangs until upgrading to the debian6-19-04-2012 kernel, which he reports stable with no problems even with a low TP1-TP2 voltage of 4.65 - 4.68 volts.

To see which version you have:

$ cat /proc/version

Try plugging the keyboard and mouse directly into the Raspberry Pi, and see what happens.


Headless Xwin

Apache vs Cherokee vs Nginx Webserver

Looks like I should use Nginx.

How to Install nginx and PHP. And should I need to do something that'd require .htaccess or mod_rewrite, here's a Nginx Primer from Apache to Nginx.

It'd be interesting to see Pelican work on a Raspberry Pi running Nginx.

Note: See history-of-nginx-start.txt, and note that the web server files are at /var/www


(Old link: How to Clone Your Raspberry Pi SD Card for Super Easy Reinstallations)

I put the microSD in the SamSung SD Adaptor, and used Win32 Disk Imager to make a backup at H:\RasberryPi2.img

Reading from Device to Image File

  • Specify a new Image File name. (On a big disk.)
  • Select "Read" to read form the Raspberry Pi's card to the file on disk.

Writing from Image File to SD Card

  • Specify an existing Image File.
  • Select "Write" to write from the file on disk to the Raspberry Pi's card.

My Raspberry Pi is up-to-date as of 2017-02-05.

Cert Bot

  1. Fix it with this recipe: (Maybe not needed!)

This seems useful:

In detail:

1. Add Backports to /etc/apt/sources.list as per

2. Do the apt-get

sudo apt-get install certbot -t jessie-backports

3. Run certbot

sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d -d

You should find that /etc/letsencrypt/live is populated with files like

4. Renew (and reload if successful) with

sudo certbot renew && /usr/sbin/service nginx reload

5. Consider using a root cronjob

 sudo crontab -e
 0 5 * * 0 certbot renew --post-hook "service nginx reload" >> /var/log/letsencrypt-renew.log
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ Your cert will
   expire on 2017-09-31. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this
   certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To
   non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot
 - If you lose your account credentials, you can recover through
   e-mails sent to
 - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:
   Donating to EFF:          

5. Port forward ports 80 and 443. At the local router:

WAN → Virtual Server / Port Forwarding

6. Update nginx

Update /etc/nginx/sites-available/default as per this Getting Started guide from Nginx.

server {
        listen 80 default_server;
        listen [::]:80 default_server;
        return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;

server {
      # SSL configuration
      listen 443 ssl default_server;
      listen [::]:443 ssl default_server;
      ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/;
      ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/;
      ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/;

TODO: Maybe figure out how to redirect to

Then check and restart nginx:

$ sudo nginx -t
$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

TODO: Renew with certbot renew –quiet as per certbot or manually.

raspberry-pi.1504491129.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/09/03 19:12 by dblume
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