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raspberry-pi [2016/11/01 20:40]
dblume [Backing-up And Restoring the SD Card]
raspberry-pi [2018/01/07 22:33] (current)
dblume [Logs]
Line 67: Line 67:
 When there are problems, check for logs in ''/var/log/syslog'' or ''/var/log/messages''. When there are problems, check for logs in ''/var/log/syslog'' or ''/var/log/messages''.
  
 +I think we need to update ''/etc/systemd/system/log2ram.service'' to make log2ram come after nginx, like so...
 +
 +<file bash log2ram.service>
 +[Unit]
 +Description=Log2Ram
 +DefaultDependencies=no
 +Before=basic.target rsyslog.service syslog.target systemd-journald.service sysinit.target shutdown.target apache2.service nginx.service
 +After=local-fs.target
 +Conflicts=shutdown.target reboot.target halt.target
 +RequiresMountsFor=/var/log /var/hdd.log
 +IgnoreOnIsolate=yes
 +
 +[Service]
 +Type=oneshot
 +ExecStart= /usr/local/bin/log2ram start
 +ExecStop= /usr/local/bin/log2ram stop
 +ExecReload= /usr/local/bin/log2ram write
 +RemainAfterExit=yes
 +
 +[Install]
 +WantedBy=sysinit.target
 +</file>
 +
 +Otherwise, it turns out that log2ram does screw up nginx's ability to start on power-cycle. Maybe need something like the following...
 +
 +<file bash todo_after_powercycle.sh>
 +#!/usr/bin/env bash
 +
 +# The tool we use to save flash affects the startup of nginx
 +if [ ! -d "/var/log/nginx" ]; then
 +  sudo mkdir /var/log/nginx
 +fi
 +
 +# if service --status-all | grep -Fq '[ - ]  nginx'; then
 +if ! service nginx status | grep -Fq 'active (running)'; then
 +  sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start > /dev/null
 +  # systemctl start nginx
 +fi
 +</file>
 ===== Keyboard Repeat Problem ===== ===== Keyboard Repeat Problem =====
  
Line 106: Line 145:
 **Note**: See history-of-nginx-start.txt, and note that the web server files are at /var/www **Note**: See history-of-nginx-start.txt, and note that the web server files are at /var/www
  
-===== Backing-up And Restoring the SD Card =====+===== Backup =====
  
-[[http://lifehacker.com/how-to-clone-your-raspberry-pi-sd-card-for-super-easy-r-1261113524|How to Clone Your Raspberry Pi SD Card for Super Easy Reinstallations]]+(Old link: [[http://lifehacker.com/how-to-clone-your-raspberry-pi-sd-card-for-super-easy-r-1261113524|How to Clone Your Raspberry Pi SD Card for Super Easy Reinstallations]])
  
-My Raspberry Pi is up-to-date as of Oct 26, 2014.+I put the microSD in the SamSung SD Adaptor, and [[https://thepihut.com/blogs/raspberry-pi-tutorials/17789160-backing-up-and-restoring-your-raspberry-pis-sd-card|used Win32 Disk Imager]] to make a backup at H:\RasberryPi2.img
  
 +==== Reading from Device to Image File ====
 +
 +  * Specify a new Image File name. (On a big disk.)
 +  * Select "Read" to read form the Raspberry Pi's card to the file on disk.
 +
 +
 +==== Writing from Image File to SD Card ====
 +
 +  * Specify an existing Image File.
 +  * Select "Write" to write from the file on disk to the Raspberry Pi's card.
 +
 +My Raspberry Pi is up-to-date as of 2017-02-05.
 ===== Cert Bot ===== ===== Cert Bot =====
  
   - https://certbot.eff.org/#debianjessie-nginx   - https://certbot.eff.org/#debianjessie-nginx
-  - Fix it with this recipe: https://github.com/certbot/certbot/issues/2673+  - Fix it with this recipe: https://github.com/certbot/certbot/issues/2673 (Maybe not needed!) 
 + 
 +This seems useful: https://bjornjohansen.no/letsencrypt-nginx
  
 In detail: In detail:
Line 129: Line 182:
   sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d pi.dlma.com -d wopr.dlma.com   sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d pi.dlma.com -d wopr.dlma.com
      
-4. Renew with +You should find that /etc/letsencrypt/live is populated with files like pi.dlma.com/cert1 
 +   
 +4. Renew (and reload if successful) with 
  
-  certbot renew+  sudo certbot renew && /usr/sbin/service nginx reload 
 +  
 +5. Consider using a root cronjob 
 + 
 +   sudo crontab -e 
 +   0 5 * * 0 certbot renew --post-hook "service nginx reload" >> /var/log/letsencrypt-renew.log
  
 <code> <code>
Line 137: Line 197:
  - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at  - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
    /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/fullchain.pem. Your cert will    /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/fullchain.pem. Your cert will
-   expire on 2017-01-31. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this+   expire on 2017-09-31. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this
    certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To    certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To
    non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot    non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot
Line 153: Line 213:
    Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le    Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le
 </code> </code>
 +
 +5. Port forward ports 80 and 443.  At the local router:
 +
 +http://router.asus.com/Advanced_VirtualServer_Content.asp
 +
 +WAN -> Virtual Server / Port Forwarding
 +
 +6. Update nginx
 +
 +https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-create-a-self-signed-ssl-certificate-for-nginx-in-ubuntu-16-04
 +
 +Update /etc/nginx/sites-available/default as per this [[https://www.nginx.com/blog/nginx-https-101-ssl-basics-getting-started/|Getting Started guide from Nginx]].
 +
 +  server {
 +          listen 80 default_server;
 +          listen [::]:80 default_server;
 +          server_name pi.dlma.com;
 +          return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
 +  }
 +  
 +  server {
 +        # SSL configuration
 +        #
 +        listen 443 ssl default_server;
 +        listen [::]:443 ssl default_server;
 +        
 +        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/fullchain.pem;
 +        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/privkey.pem;
 +        ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/chain.pem;
 +        ...
 +
 +**TODO**: Maybe figure out [[https://www.nginx.com/blog/nginx-https-101-ssl-basics-getting-started/|how to redirect http://wopr.dlma.com to https://wopr.dlma.com]].
 +
 +Then check and restart nginx:
 +
 +  $ sudo nginx -t
 +  $ sudo systemctl restart nginx
 +  
 +**TODO**: Renew with ''certbot renew --quiet'' as per [[https://certbot.eff.org/#debianjessie-nginx|certbot]] or [[https://bjornjohansen.no/letsencrypt-nginx|manually]].
 +
 +===== PiHole =====
 +
 +**Note**: I've currently got an incompatibility between PiHole and HTTPS redirecting. So I'm not using CertBot at the moment. Will have to figure that out.
 +
 +PiHole connects to FTL over port 4711.  If FTL were running, it'd have a logfile you could view like so:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +$ cat /var/log/pihole-FTL.log
 +</code>
 +
 +You could also do the following:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +telnet 127.0.0.1 4711
 +>stats
 +</code>
 +
 +or
 +
 +<code bash>
 +echo ">stats" | nc 127.0.0.1 4711
 +</code>
 +
 +If you can't connect, you can see which services are listening like so:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +$ sudo netstat -tulpn
 +$ sudo netstat -tulpn | grep FTL
 +</code>
 +
 +I eventually clued in to my problem here:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +$ pihole-FTL running
 +FATAL: Opening of FTL log (/var/log/pihole-FTL.log) failed!
 +       Make sure it exists and is writeable by user pi
 +raspberrypi:~$ ls -l /var/log/pihole*
 +-rw-r--r-- 1 pihole  pihole        0 Nov 24 20:42 /var/log/pihole-FTL.log
 +-rw-r--r-- 1 pihole  pihole      312 Sep  4 00:00 /var/log/pihole-FTL.log.1
 +-rw-r----- 1 dnsmasq root   18538496 Nov 24 12:46 /var/log/pihole.log
 +-rw-r----- 1 dnsmasq root   15273984 Sep 12 00:00 /var/log/pihole.log.1
 +...
 +raspberrypi:~$ cat /var/log/pihole-FTL.log.1
 +[2017-09-03 15:17:05.038] FATAL: Opening of /var/log/pihole.log failed!
 +[2017-09-03 15:17:05.038]        Make sure it exists and is readable by user pihole
 +$ sudo chmod +r /var/log/pihole.log
 +$ sudo service pihole-FTL restart
 +$ sudo netstat -tulpn | grep FTL
 +tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:4711          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      11082/pihole-FTL
 +</code>
 +
 +And eventually discovered that my actual problem was that my log2ram mount was full. After fixing /var/log, I still had to ask pihole to restart its DNS.
 +
 +<code>
 +$ pihole restartdns
 +</code>
 +
 +==== Example PiHole API ====
 +
 +<code>
 +curl "http://pi.hole/admin/api.php?summary" | python -m json.tool
 +</code>
 +
 +Keywords: Lets Encrypt, LetsEncrypt, Hole
raspberry-pi.1478058008.txt.gz · Last modified: 2016/11/01 20:40 by dblume
 
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