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raspberry-pi [2013/11/22 02:02]
dblume [Logs]
raspberry-pi [2018/10/06 08:51] (current)
dblume [Jessie or earlier: Add piwheels for fast Python pip installations]
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 ====== Raspberry Pi ====== ====== Raspberry Pi ======
  
-From [[http://www.raspberrypi.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?p=137164|this thread on SD cards]], the comment from by carlosfm on Mon Aug 27, 2012 9:46 pm suggests that the 16GB Sandisk Extreme Class 10 45MB/s working fine on my Pi might be a good card to use.+From [[http://www.raspberrypi.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?p=137164|this thread on SD cards]], the comment from by carlosfm on Mon Aug 27, 2012 9:46 pm suggests that the **16GB Sandisk Extreme Class 10 45MB/s** working fine on my Pi might be a good card to use. 
 + 
 +Also, highly recommended: **Samsung 32GB Class 10 Model Code: MB-SSBGA/US**
  
 Partway down the page, it says there's a debian package to download: Partway down the page, it says there's a debian package to download:
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 ===== Logs ===== ===== Logs =====
  
-Consider [[http://people.virginia.edu/~ll2bf/docs/nix/rpi_server.html#_install_ramlog|installing Ramlog]] to extend the life of your SD card by writing logs only to RAM, then flushing them to disk There's talk of having to reboot twice, and I definitely had to add the following two lines to /etc/init.d/ramlog because rsyslogd had kept /var/log open. (I could determine this by looking at the results of ''sudo service ramlog start''):+Consider [[https://github.com/azlux/log2ram|installing log2ram]] to extend the life of your SDCard by writing logs to RAM first.
  
-<code bash> +When there are problems, check for logs in ''/var/log/syslog'' or ''/var/log/messages''.
-# X-Start-Before: rsyslog +
-# X-Stop-After: rsyslog +
-</code>+
  
-And then+I think we need to update ''/etc/systemd/system/log2ram.service'' to make log2ram come after nginx, like so...
  
-<code+<file bash log2ram.service
-$ sudo insserv +[Unit] 
-</code>+Description=Log2Ram 
 +DefaultDependencies=no 
 +Before=basic.target rsyslog.service syslog.target systemd-journald.service sysinit.target shutdown.target apache2.service nginx.service 
 +After=local-fs.target 
 +Conflicts=shutdown.target reboot.target halt.target 
 +RequiresMountsFor=/var/log /var/hdd.log 
 +IgnoreOnIsolate=yes
  
-When there are problemscheck for logs in ''/var/log/syslog'' or ''/var/log/messages''.+[Service] 
 +Type=oneshot 
 +ExecStart= /usr/local/bin/log2ram start 
 +ExecStop= /usr/local/bin/log2ram stop 
 +ExecReload= /usr/local/bin/log2ram write 
 +RemainAfterExit=yes 
 + 
 +[Install] 
 +WantedBy=sysinit.target 
 +</file> 
 + 
 +Otherwiseit turns out that log2ram does screw up nginx's ability to start on power-cycle. Maybe need something like the following... 
 + 
 +<file bash todo_after_powercycle.sh> 
 +#!/usr/bin/env bash 
 + 
 +# The tool we use to save flash affects the startup of nginx 
 +if [ ! -d "/var/log/nginx" ]; then 
 +  sudo mkdir /var/log/nginx 
 +fi
  
 +# if service --status-all | grep -Fq '[ - ]  nginx'; then
 +if ! service nginx status | grep -Fq 'active (running)'; then
 +  sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start > /dev/null
 +  # systemctl start nginx
 +fi
 +</file>
 ===== Keyboard Repeat Problem ===== ===== Keyboard Repeat Problem =====
  
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 ===== Camera ===== ===== Camera =====
  
 +A list of [[http://elinux.org/RPi_USB_Webcams|tested webcams]].
 Here's a [[http://www.raspberrypi.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=46&t=39470|Python script for saving jpg images]]. Here's a [[http://www.raspberrypi.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=46&t=39470|Python script for saving jpg images]].
 +Here's [[https://medium.com/p/2d5a2d61da3d|a tutorial that suggests using motion]].
  
 +Video Tutorials:
 +
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVrqNaLxU_g|Raspberry Pi Webcam Server Tutorial (Live Stream)]]
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1jSudsIJfA|Raspberry Pi as a Webcam Server]]
 ===== Headless Xwin ===== ===== Headless Xwin =====
  
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 It'd be interesting to see [[http://docs.getpelican.com/en/latest/getting_started.html|Pelican]] [[http://www.instructables.com/id/Host-your-own-blog-from-a-25-Raspberry-Pi-compute/|work on a Raspberry Pi]] running Nginx. It'd be interesting to see [[http://docs.getpelican.com/en/latest/getting_started.html|Pelican]] [[http://www.instructables.com/id/Host-your-own-blog-from-a-25-Raspberry-Pi-compute/|work on a Raspberry Pi]] running Nginx.
 +
 +**Note**: See history-of-nginx-start.txt, and note that the web server files are at /var/www
 +
 +===== Backup =====
 +
 +(Old link: [[http://lifehacker.com/how-to-clone-your-raspberry-pi-sd-card-for-super-easy-r-1261113524|How to Clone Your Raspberry Pi SD Card for Super Easy Reinstallations]])
 +
 +I put the microSD in the SamSung SD Adaptor, and [[https://thepihut.com/blogs/raspberry-pi-tutorials/17789160-backing-up-and-restoring-your-raspberry-pis-sd-card|used Win32 Disk Imager]] to make a backup at H:\RasberryPi2.img
 +
 +==== Reading from Device to Image File ====
 +
 +  * Specify a new Image File name. (On a big disk.)
 +  * Select "Read" to read form the Raspberry Pi's card to the file on disk.
 +
 +
 +==== Writing from Image File to SD Card ====
 +
 +  * Specify an existing Image File.
 +  * Select "Write" to write from the file on disk to the Raspberry Pi's card.
 +
 +My Raspberry Pi is up-to-date as of 2017-02-05.
 +===== Cert Bot =====
 +
 +  - https://certbot.eff.org/#debianjessie-nginx
 +  - Fix it with this recipe: https://github.com/certbot/certbot/issues/2673 (Maybe not needed!)
 +
 +This seems useful: https://bjornjohansen.no/letsencrypt-nginx
 +
 +In detail:
 +
 +1. Add Backports to /etc/apt/sources.list as per https://backports.debian.org/Instructions/
 +
 +2. Do the apt-get
 +
 +  sudo apt-get install certbot -t jessie-backports
 +
 +3. Run certbot
 +
 +  sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d pi.dlma.com -d wopr.dlma.com
 +  
 +You should find that /etc/letsencrypt/live is populated with files like pi.dlma.com/cert1
 +  
 +4. Renew (and reload if successful) with 
 +
 +  sudo certbot renew && /usr/sbin/service nginx reload
 + 
 +5. Consider using a root cronjob
 +
 +   sudo crontab -e
 +   0 5 * * 0 certbot renew --post-hook "service nginx reload" >> /var/log/letsencrypt-renew.log
 +
 +<code>
 +IMPORTANT NOTES:
 + - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
 +   /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/fullchain.pem. Your cert will
 +   expire on 2017-09-31. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this
 +   certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To
 +   non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot
 +   renew"
 + - If you lose your account credentials, you can recover through
 +   e-mails sent to david.blume@gmail.com.
 + - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
 +   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
 +   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
 +   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
 +   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 + - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:
 +
 +   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
 +   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le
 +</code>
 +
 +5. Port forward ports 80 and 443.  At the local router:
 +
 +http://router.asus.com/Advanced_VirtualServer_Content.asp
 +
 +WAN -> Virtual Server / Port Forwarding
 +
 +6. Update nginx
 +
 +https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-create-a-self-signed-ssl-certificate-for-nginx-in-ubuntu-16-04
 +
 +Update /etc/nginx/sites-available/default as per this [[https://www.nginx.com/blog/nginx-https-101-ssl-basics-getting-started/|Getting Started guide from Nginx]].
 +
 +  server {
 +          listen 80 default_server;
 +          listen [::]:80 default_server;
 +          server_name pi.dlma.com;
 +          return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
 +  }
 +  
 +  server {
 +        # SSL configuration
 +        #
 +        listen 443 ssl default_server;
 +        listen [::]:443 ssl default_server;
 +        
 +        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/fullchain.pem;
 +        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/privkey.pem;
 +        ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/pi.dlma.com/chain.pem;
 +        ...
 +
 +**TODO**: Maybe figure out [[https://www.nginx.com/blog/nginx-https-101-ssl-basics-getting-started/|how to redirect http://wopr.dlma.com to https://wopr.dlma.com]].
 +
 +Then check and restart nginx:
 +
 +  $ sudo nginx -t
 +  $ sudo systemctl restart nginx
 +  
 +**TODO**: Renew with ''certbot renew --quiet'' as per [[https://certbot.eff.org/#debianjessie-nginx|certbot]] or [[https://bjornjohansen.no/letsencrypt-nginx|manually]].
 +
 +===== PiHole =====
 +
 +**Note**: I've currently got an incompatibility between PiHole and HTTPS redirecting. So I'm not using CertBot at the moment. Will have to figure that out.
 +
 +PiHole connects to FTL over port 4711.  If FTL were running, it'd have a logfile you could view like so:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +$ cat /var/log/pihole-FTL.log
 +</code>
 +
 +You could also do the following:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +telnet 127.0.0.1 4711
 +>stats
 +</code>
 +
 +or
 +
 +<code bash>
 +echo ">stats" | nc 127.0.0.1 4711
 +</code>
 +
 +If you can't connect, you can see which services are listening like so:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +$ sudo netstat -tulpn
 +$ sudo netstat -tulpn | grep FTL
 +</code>
 +
 +I eventually clued in to my problem here:
 +
 +<code bash>
 +$ pihole-FTL running
 +FATAL: Opening of FTL log (/var/log/pihole-FTL.log) failed!
 +       Make sure it exists and is writeable by user pi
 +raspberrypi:~$ ls -l /var/log/pihole*
 +-rw-r--r-- 1 pihole  pihole        0 Nov 24 20:42 /var/log/pihole-FTL.log
 +-rw-r--r-- 1 pihole  pihole      312 Sep  4 00:00 /var/log/pihole-FTL.log.1
 +-rw-r----- 1 dnsmasq root   18538496 Nov 24 12:46 /var/log/pihole.log
 +-rw-r----- 1 dnsmasq root   15273984 Sep 12 00:00 /var/log/pihole.log.1
 +...
 +raspberrypi:~$ cat /var/log/pihole-FTL.log.1
 +[2017-09-03 15:17:05.038] FATAL: Opening of /var/log/pihole.log failed!
 +[2017-09-03 15:17:05.038]        Make sure it exists and is readable by user pihole
 +$ sudo chmod +r /var/log/pihole.log
 +$ sudo service pihole-FTL restart
 +$ sudo netstat -tulpn | grep FTL
 +tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:4711          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      11082/pihole-FTL
 +</code>
 +
 +And eventually discovered that my actual problem was that my log2ram mount was full. After fixing /var/log, I still had to ask pihole to restart its DNS.
 +
 +<code>
 +$ pihole restartdns
 +</code>
 +
 +==== Example PiHole API ====
 +
 +<code>
 +curl "http://pi.hole/admin/api.php?summary" | python -m json.tool
 +</code>
 +
 +===== Jessie or earlier: Add piwheels for fast Python pip installations =====
 +
 +If you're not installing Stretch or later, here's [[https://www.piwheels.hostedpi.com/|info on piwheels]]. Add the following to ''/etc/pip.conf'':
 +<file bash /etc/pip.conf>
 +[global]
 +extra-index-url=https://www.piwheels.org/simple
 +</file>
 +
 +====== Keywords ======
 +
 +Keywords: Lets Encrypt, LetsEncrypt, Hole
raspberry-pi.1385114578.txt.gz · Last modified: 2013/11/22 02:02 by dblume
 
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